I came across the following article recently which explored the use of body language in a laboratory setting of Chinese and Canadian participants.
The authors, Zhaleh Semnani-Azad (University of Waterloo) and Wendi L. Adair (University of Waterloo), coded six categories of behavior: posture, head movement, hand movement, eye gaze, facial expression, and how often the participant fell silent or kept talking.
The results indicated that some nonverbal cues were used by both groups to convey the same meaning. Smiling, leaning forward, and gesturing while talking were employed by both the Chinese and Canadians when trying to convey a positive and more submissive approach, and shaking the head and frowning were displayed by both to show the opposite. In attempting to project dominance, both groups were more likely to try to control the room through negative signals than positive ones.
What I find interesting is many of the traits listed as "positive and submissive" is also what previous research studies state are nonverbal cues of rapport? Is rapport building also considered not only positive but also submissive?
read the full article from Strategy + Business [HERE].